The Louisiana State University System’s Charity Hospital was the second oldest, and largest, hospital in the United States. More importantly, it was the region’s only Level I Trauma Center. The hospital suffered catastrophic wind and flood damage as a result of Hurricane Katrina. The facility was forced to shut down. FEMA’s initial damage assessment of $23 million was challenged by the state. With the support of DMS, an arbitration panel ordered FEMA to increase the estimate to $475 million, qualifying the facility for replacement. The insurance carriers’ claims that all damage were a result of flooding, limited the state to only collect limits on the flood policy. DMS developed computer models to show that damage to the upper floors was a result of wind-driven rain, not flooding. The hospital would have been forced to close even if the levees had not broken. Litigation resulted in the excess insurance carriers having to pay $95 million to the state for wind damage.